Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth by Decade,
Regions and States of the U.S., 1959-2018
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth by State
Average Annual Percent Change, 1959-2018
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth by State
U.S.:
1959-2018 = 2.21%
2018 = 1.76%
1960-1969 = 3.49%
1970-1979 = 2.37%
1980-1989 = 2.20%
1990-1999 = 2.03%
2000-2009 = 1.09%
2010-2018 = 1.95%
View Distribution Totals as:Actual Percent
   
 
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth of United States' 51 States:
Average Growth Distributions by Decade over 1959-2018
1959-2018
1960-1969
1970-1979
1980-1989
1990-1999
2000-2009
2010-2018
2018
More than 2.6%
2
48
26
15
9
3
3
5
2.6% to 2.5%
8
1
6
0
0
1
0
0
2.5% to 2.4%
5
1
2
1
4
2
1
0
2.4% to 2.3%
6
0
3
1
2
1
2
1
2.3% to 2.2%
11
1
3
2
6
1
1
2
2.2% to 2.1%
5
0
5
0
10
1
2
1
2.1% to 2.0%
6
0
0
2
3
1
5
1
2.0% or Below
8
0
6
30
17
41
37
41
Total
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
 
   
   
 
United States Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth by State:
Average Annual Percent Change, 1959-2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.80
1
4.77
3
4.30
1
1.01
47
2.75
4
3.11
1
2.06
11
1.80
14
 
2.66
2
4.76
4
3.67
4
1.66
33
2.64
8
1.61
17
1.10
47
1.83
13
 
2.64
3
4.25
10
3.64
5
1.93
23
2.26
17
1.45
22
1.95
18
1.59
24
 
2.61
4
5.19
2
2.77
24
2.61
15
2.21
21
0.82
39
1.78
23
0.54
50
 
2.56
5
4.14
12
3.08
15
2.49
16
2.74
6
0.71
44
1.96
17
1.48
31
 
2.54
6
4.12
13
2.12
44
3.24
8
1.91
38
1.89
13
1.72
27
0.72
48
 
2.53
7
4.57
7
2.75
25
2.76
13
1.91
37
1.59
18
1.33
40
1.23
37
 
2.53
8
4.67
6
2.62
26
3.10
9
2.24
19
1.05
34
1.24
44
1.56
26
 
2.52
9
4.72
5
3.87
3
1.29
40
3.04
1
2.32
7
1.20
45
1.08
41
 
2.52
10
3.55
23
2.24
38
3.63
3
2.13
25
1.43
24
1.86
19
1.38
33
 
2.51
11
3.40
31
1.83
46
3.84
1
2.17
24
1.73
15
2.02
13
1.60
23
 
2.43
12
3.99
15
3.30
9
2.39
17
2.18
23
1.27
29
1.35
38
1.69
18
 
2.42
13
4.56
8
2.55
28
2.87
11
2.48
11
0.17
49
1.77
25
1.40
32
 
2.41
14
3.68
18
1.83
47
3.75
2
2.11
30
2.12
9
0.88
51
1.34
34
 
2.40
15
4.04
14
2.82
21
2.25
18
2.38
14
0.98
36
2.05
12
1.49
30
 
2.37
16
3.48
26
3.56
6
1.06
45
2.45
12
2.70
2
0.96
50
1.94
11
 
2.37
17
3.58
21
2.11
45
3.33
6
1.93
36
1.28
28
1.78
24
1.34
35
 
2.36
18
2.61
48
2.91
18
2.04
20
2.61
9
2.23
8
1.86
20
0.57
49
 
2.36
19
2.48
50
4.27
2
-0.15
51
2.75
5
2.66
3
2.11
8
2.64
5
 
2.34
20
4.17
11
2.22
39
2.80
12
1.75
42
1.80
14
1.33
39
0.88
46
 
2.34
21
4.27
9
2.94
17
1.91
26
2.28
16
1.16
30
1.37
37
0.85
47
 
2.31
22
3.14
38
1.36
50
3.45
4
1.80
40
1.36
26
2.61
3
2.92
3
 
2.28
23
5.67
1
1.51
49
1.98
22
0.64
51
1.90
12
1.49
33
1.07
43
 
2.28
24
3.25
37
2.35
35
3.32
7
1.74
43
1.56
20
1.44
36
1.71
16
 
2.26
25
3.37
33
2.53
30
1.42
37
2.65
7
0.95
38
2.64
2
3.16
2
 
2.26
26
3.48
25
3.29
10
1.18
42
2.48
10
1.30
27
1.72
26
1.80
15
 
2.25
27
3.47
28
3.38
8
1.33
39
2.13
26
1.92
11
1.29
41
3.42
1
 
2.24
28
3.37
32
2.46
34
2.21
19
2.04
34
1.41
25
1.97
16
1.66
20
 
2.24
29
3.88
17
2.50
32
2.75
14
1.44
48
0.77
41
1.83
22
1.53
28
 
2.23
30
3.50
24
3.28
11
1.04
46
1.48
47
2.58
4
1.47
34
1.92
12
 
2.23
31
3.46
29
2.78
23
1.91
25
2.43
13
1.44
23
1.64
30
0.39
51
 
2.22
32
2.87
44
3.10
14
1.70
30
2.78
3
0.38
48
2.44
4
2.11
9
 
2.21
33
3.46
30
1.60
48
3.38
5
1.36
49
1.52
21
1.70
28
0.93
45
 
2.20
34
3.89
16
2.88
20
1.41
38
2.08
32
1.58
19
1.49
32
1.61
22
 
2.17
35
3.13
39
2.78
22
1.67
32
2.37
15
1.02
35
1.66
29
1.58
25
 
2.11
36
3.29
35
3.13
13
1.48
36
2.11
29
1.65
16
1.26
43
1.14
40
 
2.09
37
3.55
22
2.35
36
1.80
28
2.26
18
0.39
47
1.98
15
1.15
39
 
2.09
38
2.90
43
2.16
42
1.62
34
1.76
41
1.10
31
2.92
1
2.22
8
 
2.09
39
3.48
27
2.49
33
1.58
35
2.12
27
0.71
43
2.10
10
1.24
36
 
2.08
40
2.53
49
2.52
31
1.09
44
2.82
2
1.09
32
2.39
5
2.29
7
 
2.07
41
2.86
45
2.97
16
1.15
43
2.10
31
0.77
40
2.30
6
1.70
17
 
2.05
42
3.04
40
2.17
41
1.92
24
2.21
20
0.73
42
2.10
9
2.82
4
 
2.05
43
2.92
42
2.89
19
0.88
49
1.72
45
2.43
6
2.02
14
2.00
10
 
2.01
44
3.60
20
2.58
27
1.72
29
1.59
46
0.97
37
1.46
35
1.65
21
 
2.01
45
3.02
41
2.54
29
2.03
21
1.99
35
1.06
33
1.29
42
1.53
27
 
2.00
46
3.25
36
2.15
43
1.82
27
2.07
33
0.59
46
1.83
21
1.22
38
 
1.96
47
3.64
19
2.33
37
1.68
31
2.19
22
-0.35
51
2.24
7
1.08
42
 
1.93
48
2.23
51
3.15
12
1.26
41
1.72
44
2.07
10
1.02
49
1.68
19
 
1.89
49
3.35
34
3.51
7
-0.04
50
0.68
50
2.49
5
1.18
46
2.30
6
 
1.75
50
2.76
47
1.30
51
2.91
10
1.84
39
0.64
45
1.08
48
1.00
44
 
1.62
51
2.78
46
2.20
40
1.00
48
2.12
28
-0.25
50
1.63
31
1.52
29
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.21
3.49
2.37
2.20
2.03
1.09
1.95
1.76
Source: Calculations by the United States Regional Economic Analysis Project (US-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
May 2019
REAP_PI_SA1400_DECADES_702A
 
   
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth by
United States
Average Annual Percent Change, 1959-2018
Select an Alternate Regionalization:
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth by
United States
U.S.:
1959-2018 = 2.21%
2018 = 1.76%
1960-1969 = 3.49%
1970-1979 = 2.37%
1980-1989 = 2.20%
1990-1999 = 2.03%
2000-2009 = 1.09%
2010-2018 = 1.95%
View Distribution Totals as:Actual Percent
   
 
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth
by United States
Average Growth Distributions by Decade over 1959-2018
1959-2018
1960-1969
1970-1979
1980-1989
1990-1999
2000-2009
2010-2018
2018
More than 2.4%
2
8
4
3
1
0
1
0
2.4% to 2.2%
2
0
2
0
2
0
1
1
2.2% to 2.0%
3
0
0
0
3
0
1
1
2.0% or Below
1
0
2
5
2
8
5
6
Total
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
 
   
   
 
United States Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth by Region:
Average Annual Percent Change, 1959-2018
 
BEA Regions
 
 
2.44
3.53
1.84
3.69
2.04
1.80
1.62
1.45
 
2.29
3.35
1.88
3.03
1.90
1.41
2.11
1.99
 
2.03
3.29
2.28
1.79
2.19
0.46
1.98
1.69
 
2.21
3.58
2.85
1.83
2.23
1.34
1.59
1.38
 
2.48
4.35
2.95
2.56
2.14
1.08
1.58
1.49
 
2.20
3.43
3.20
1.25
2.21
1.41
1.63
1.79
 
2.16
2.88
2.97
1.34
2.63
0.85
2.32
2.03
 
2.09
3.05
2.25
1.55
1.84
1.03
2.72
2.24
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Census Divisions
 
2.06
3.00
2.87
1.42
2.26
0.85
1.90
1.85
 
2.11
3.05
2.25
1.56
1.83
1.10
2.77
2.29
 
2.03
3.29
2.28
1.79
2.19
0.46
1.98
1.69
 
2.21
3.58
2.85
1.83
2.23
1.34
1.59
1.38
 
2.37
4.30
2.54
2.76
1.89
1.00
1.56
1.32
 
2.49
4.23
3.19
2.20
2.48
1.10
1.56
1.46
 
2.32
3.56
3.39
1.25
2.39
1.64
1.63
1.83
 
2.44
3.53
1.84
3.69
2.04
1.80
1.62
1.45
 
2.30
3.30
1.83
3.08
1.91
1.35
2.25
2.21
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Census Regions
 
2.07
3.05
2.33
1.54
1.89
1.00
2.52
2.12
 
2.08
3.37
2.43
1.80
2.20
0.72
1.86
1.59
 
2.39
4.09
2.93
2.23
2.15
1.21
1.59
1.52
 
2.34
3.35
1.83
3.23
1.94
1.47
2.07
2.00
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.21
3.49
2.37
2.20
2.03
1.09
1.95
1.76
Source: Calculations by the United States Regional Economic Analysis Project (US-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
May 2019
REAP_PI_SA1400_DECADES_702B
 
   
A Note on Real* Per Capita Personal Income
Per Capita Income is one of the most widely used indicators for gauging the economic performance and changing fortunes of local economies. It is used as a yardstick to assess the economic well being of a region's residents and the quality of consumer markets. It serves as a barometer for calibrating the economic performance of a region over time and to judge differences in relative economic prosperity between regions. Shifting trends in local per capita income growth have important social and political ramifications and significant implications in formulating local economic development strategies and initiatives.
Definition: Personal income is the income that is received by persons from all sources. It is calculated as the sum of wage and salary disbursements, supplements to wages and salaries, proprietors' income with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments, rental income of persons with capital consumption adjustment, personal dividend income, personal interest income, and personal current tranfer receipts, less contributions for government social insurance. This measure of income is calculated as the personal income of the residents of a given area divided by the resident population of the area. In computing per capita personal income, BEA uses the Census Bureau's annual midyear population estimates.
Personal income is measured as a flow throughout the year, while the measurement of population is at one point in mid-year. Therefore, per capita income is distorted if a significant change in population occurs during the year.
For smaller states in particular, per capita income in any given year may be exceptionally high or low for the short run because of unusual local conditions, such as a bumper crop, a catastrophe, or a major construction project as the building of a dam or nuclear power plant.
Farm incomes are notorious for being especially volatile year-to-year, owing to changing weather, work market conditions, and alterations in government programs. Therefore, the per capita income of farm-dependent states may exhibit sharp fluctuations over time.
The presence of large institutional populations--such as residents attending a local college or the residents of a local prison or state mental institution--can significantly lower the per capita income estimates of an area. Such results may not reflect the relative economic well being of the non-institutional population and may mislead if care is not given to their interpretation.
Copyright © 2019. Pacific Northwest Regional Economic Analysis Project (PNREAP). All Rights Reserved.

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