Hawaii vs. United States
Comparative Trends Analysis:
Per Capita Personal Income Growth and Change, 1958-2020
Introduction
Hawaii vs. United States
Hawaii:
2020 PCI = $58,655
U.S.:
2020 PCI = $59,510
Per Capita Income (PCI) is one of the most widely used indicators for gauging the economic performance and changing fortunes of local economies. It is used as a yardstick to assess the economic well being of a region's residents and the quality of consumer markets. It serves as a barometer for calibrating the economic performance of a region over time and to judge differences in relative economic prosperity between regions. Shifting trends in local per capita income growth have important social and political ramifications and significant implications in formulating local economic development strategies and initiatives.
Data Definition:
Personal income is the income that is received by persons from all sources. It is calculated as the sum of wage and salary disbursements, supplements to wages and salaries, proprietors' income with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments, rental income of persons with capital consumption adjustment, personal dividend income, personal interest income, and personal current tranfer receipts, less contributions for government social insurance. This measure of income is calculated as the personal income of the residents of a given area divided by the resident population of the area. In computing per capita personal income, BEA uses the Census Bureau's annual midyear population estimates.
Personal income is measured as a flow throughout the year, while the measurement of population is at one point in mid-year. Therefore, per capita income is distorted if a significant change in population occurs during the year.
For smaller states in particular, per capita income in any given year may be exceptionally high or low for the short run because of unusual local conditions, such as a bumper crop, a catastrophe, or a major construction project as the building of a dam or nuclear power plant.
Farm incomes are notorious for being especially volatile year-to-year, owing to changing weather, commodity market conditions, and alterations in government programs. Therefore, the per capita income of farm-dependent states may exhibit sharp fluctuations over time.
The presence of large institutional populations--such as residents attending a local college or the residents of a local prison or state mental institution--can significantly lower the per capita income estimates of an area. Such results may not reflect the relative economic well being of the non-institutional population and may mislead if care is not given to their interpretation.
Hawaii Per Capita Personal Income, 1959-2020
Current vs. Constant Dollars
Hawaii Per Capita Personal Income, 1959-2020
Current vs. Constant Dollars
Figure 1.
Figure 1 depicts Hawaii's annual per capita personal income over 1959-2020 in current and constant (2012) dollars. Constant dollar measurements remove the effects of inflation. They allow for comparison of changes in the real purchasing power of Hawaii over time.
When measured in current dollars, Hawaii's per capita personal income increased 2,461.1%, from $2,290 in 1959 to $58,655 in 2020. When measured in constant 2012 dollars to adjust for inflation, it advanced 272.5%, from $14,158 in 1959 to $52,735 in 2020.
Real Per Capita Personal Income Indices (1958=100): 1958-2020
Real Per Capita Personal Income Indices (1958=100): 1958-2020
Figure 2.
Figure 2 portrays Hawaii's real per capita personal income growth in a broader context by offering direct comparisons across time with the United States. The growth indices shown here express each region's real per capita personal income in 1958 as a base figure of 100, and the real per capita personal incomes in later years as a percentage of the 1958 base figure. This method allows for more direct comparison of differences in real per capita personal income growth between regions that may differ vastly in size.
Hawaii's overall real per capita personal income growth was 296.3% over 1958-2020 outpaced the United States' increase of 294.8%.
Per Capita Personal Income as a Percent of the U.S. Average: 1958-2020
Per Capita Personal Income as a Percent of the U.S. Average: 1958-2020
Figure 3.
Figure 3 displays the trends for per capita personal income relative to the national average by tracing Hawaii per capita personal income as a percent of the national average over 1958-2020.
In 1958, Hawaii's per capita personal income amounted to 98.2% of the national average; in 2020, it approximated 98.6%.
Hawaii Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1959-2020
Hawaii Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1959-2020
Figure 4.
Figure 4 displays the short-run pattern of Hawaii's real per capita personal income growth by tracking the year-to-year percent change over 1959-2020. The average annual percent change for the entire 62-year period is also traced on this chart to provide a benchmark for gauging periods of relative high--and relative low--growth against the backdrop of the long-term average.
On average, Hawaii's real per capita personal income grew at an annual rate of 2.28% over 1959-2020. The state recorded its highest growth in 1969 (8.17%) and recorded its lowest growth in 1996 (-2.56%). In 2020, Hawaii's real per capita personal income grew by 4.51%
Hawaii Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1959-2020
Hawaii Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1959-2020
Figure 5.
Over the past nine decades some states have experienced extreme swings in growth, and often such swings have tended to coincide with the decades themselves. Figure 5 again illustrates the annual percent change in Hawaii's real per capita personal income since 1959, but this time they are overlayed with average growth rates for the decade of the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010-2020.
During the 1960s, Hawaii's annual real per capita personal income growth rate averaged 5.67%. It averaged 1.51% in the 1970s, 1.98% throughout the 1980s, 0.57% throughout the 1990s, 1.83% during the 2000s, and 1.47% thus far this decade (2010 to 2020).
Real Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Real Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Figure 6.
Figure 6 compares the decade average growth rates for Hawaii noted in the previous graph with the corresponding decade averages for the nation.
Relative to nationwide real per capita personal income growth trends, Hawaii led the nation over the 1960s (5.67% vs. 3.49%), fell under the nation throughout the 1970s (1.51% vs. 2.37%), posted below the nation during the 1980s (1.98% vs. 2.20%), recorded underneath the nation in the 1990s (0.57% vs. 2.04%), outgained the nation throughout the 2000s (1.83% vs. 1.08%), and lagged the nation over 2010-2020 (1.47% vs. 2.00%).
   
 
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change
 
 
 
2.28
5.67
1.51
1.98
0.57
1.83
1.47
4.51
 
2.26
3.49
2.37
2.20
2.04
1.08
2.00
4.93
 
   

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Hawaii:
Per Capita Personal Income, 1958-2020
 
1958
 
2,121
0.159
13,307
100.0
N
98.19
1959
 
2,290
0.162
14,158
106.4
6.40
101.34
1960
 
2,516
0.164
15,303
115.0
8.09
108.41
1961
 
2,661
0.166
16,020
120.4
4.68
111.67
1962
 
2,750
0.168
16,364
123.0
2.15
110.08
1963
 
2,949
0.170
17,338
130.3
5.96
113.91
1964
 
3,125
0.173
18,114
136.1
4.47
114.27
1965
 
3,412
0.175
19,497
146.5
7.64
116.96
1966
 
3,674
0.179
20,473
153.9
5.01
117.22
1967
 
3,915
0.184
21,284
159.9
3.96
117.65
1968
 
4,338
0.191
22,692
170.5
6.62
119.93
1969
 
4,903
0.200
24,546
184.5
8.17
124.75
1970
 
5,538
0.209
26,484
199.0
7.90
131.92
1971
 
5,791
0.218
26,567
199.7
0.31
129.53
1972
 
6,170
0.225
27,372
205.7
3.03
127.04
1973
 
6,643
0.238
27,964
210.2
2.17
123.87
1974
 
7,412
0.262
28,260
212.4
1.06
127.02
1975
 
7,907
0.284
27,827
209.1
-1.53
125.04
1976
 
8,367
0.300
27,913
209.8
0.31
121.70
1977
 
8,828
0.319
27,653
207.8
-0.93
117.46
1978
 
9,640
0.341
28,233
212.2
2.10
115.37
1979
 
10,571
0.372
28,433
213.7
0.71
114.50
1980
 
11,867
0.412
28,816
216.6
1.35
116.57
1981
 
12,711
0.449
28,328
212.9
-1.69
112.49
1982
 
13,249
0.474
27,973
210.2
-1.26
110.41
1983
 
14,262
0.494
28,883
217.1
3.26
112.32
1984
 
15,052
0.512
29,374
220.7
1.70
108.24
1985
 
15,824
0.530
29,840
224.2
1.58
107.25
1986
 
16,599
0.542
30,634
230.2
2.66
107.16
1987
 
17,435
0.559
31,214
234.6
1.89
107.03
1988
 
18,964
0.580
32,675
245.6
4.68
108.64
1989
 
20,897
0.606
34,499
259.3
5.58
111.89
1990
 
22,433
0.632
35,478
266.6
2.84
114.33
1991
 
23,253
0.653
35,585
267.4
0.30
116.09
1992
 
24,542
0.671
36,582
274.9
2.80
116.37
1993
 
25,133
0.688
36,552
274.7
-0.08
115.64
1994
 
25,400
0.702
36,186
271.9
-1.00
112.51
1995
 
25,788
0.717
35,981
270.4
-0.57
109.24
1996
 
25,665
0.732
35,060
263.5
-2.56
103.61
1997
 
26,334
0.745
35,358
265.7
0.85
101.31
1998
 
26,756
0.751
35,641
267.8
0.80
97.09
1999
 
27,768
0.762
36,459
274.0
2.29
96.78
2000
 
29,319
0.781
37,545
282.2
2.98
95.59
2001
 
30,229
0.797
37,949
285.2
1.08
95.61
2002
 
31,257
0.807
38,732
291.1
2.06
98.17
2003
 
32,467
0.824
39,403
296.1
1.73
99.24
2004
 
34,277
0.844
40,592
305.1
3.02
99.99
2005
 
36,375
0.869
41,870
314.7
3.15
101.41
2006
 
38,480
0.893
43,081
323.8
2.89
100.95
2007
 
40,490
0.916
44,197
332.1
2.59
101.52
2008
 
41,969
0.943
44,494
334.4
0.67
102.30
2009
 
41,082
0.941
43,676
328.2
-1.84
104.38
2010
 
41,606
0.957
43,454
326.6
-0.51
102.25
2011
 
42,976
0.982
43,777
329.0
0.74
100.45
2012
 
44,121
1.000
44,121
331.6
0.78
98.89
2013
 
44,378
1.014
43,786
329.0
-0.76
98.85
2014
 
46,658
1.029
45,349
340.8
3.57
99.24
2015
 
48,566
1.031
47,098
353.9
3.86
99.33
2016
 
50,089
1.041
48,094
361.4
2.11
100.56
2017
 
52,222
1.061
49,243
370.1
2.39
100.79
2018
 
53,534
1.083
49,423
371.4
0.37
98.96
2019
 
55,464
1.099
50,458
379.2
2.09
98.96
2020
 
58,655
1.112
52,735
396.3
4.51
98.56
Source: Calculations by the United States Regional Economic Analysis Project (US-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2021
REAP_PI_SA1400_700_PN
 
   

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
United States:
Per Capita Personal Income, 1958-2020
 
1958
 
2,160
0.159
13,552
100.0
N
1959
 
2,260
0.162
13,971
103.1
3.10
1960
 
2,321
0.164
14,117
104.2
1.04
1961
 
2,383
0.166
14,346
105.9
1.62
1962
 
2,498
0.168
14,865
109.7
3.62
1963
 
2,589
0.170
15,221
112.3
2.40
1964
 
2,735
0.173
15,852
117.0
4.15
1965
 
2,918
0.175
16,670
123.0
5.16
1966
 
3,134
0.179
17,466
128.9
4.77
1967
 
3,328
0.184
18,091
133.5
3.58
1968
 
3,617
0.191
18,921
139.6
4.59
1969
 
3,931
0.200
19,677
145.2
3.99
1970
 
4,198
0.209
20,076
148.1
2.03
1971
 
4,471
0.218
20,510
151.3
2.16
1972
 
4,857
0.225
21,546
159.0
5.05
1973
 
5,363
0.238
22,575
166.6
4.78
1974
 
5,836
0.262
22,248
164.2
-1.45
1975
 
6,324
0.284
22,255
164.2
0.03
1976
 
6,875
0.300
22,937
169.3
3.06
1977
 
7,516
0.319
23,543
173.7
2.64
1978
 
8,356
0.341
24,472
180.6
3.95
1979
 
9,232
0.372
24,832
183.2
1.47
1980
 
10,180
0.412
24,720
182.4
-0.45
1981
 
11,300
0.449
25,183
185.8
1.87
1982
 
11,999
0.474
25,335
186.9
0.60
1983
 
12,698
0.494
25,716
189.8
1.50
1984
 
13,906
0.512
27,138
200.3
5.53
1985
 
14,755
0.530
27,823
205.3
2.52
1986
 
15,490
0.542
28,588
211.0
2.75
1987
 
16,289
0.559
29,163
215.2
2.01
1988
 
17,455
0.580
30,076
221.9
3.13
1989
 
18,676
0.606
30,833
227.5
2.52
1990
 
19,621
0.632
31,030
229.0
0.64
1991
 
20,030
0.653
30,653
226.2
-1.22
1992
 
21,090
0.671
31,437
232.0
2.56
1993
 
21,733
0.688
31,608
233.2
0.54
1994
 
22,575
0.702
32,162
237.3
1.75
1995
 
23,607
0.717
32,939
243.1
2.42
1996
 
24,771
0.732
33,838
249.7
2.73
1997
 
25,993
0.745
34,900
257.5
3.14
1998
 
27,557
0.751
36,708
270.9
5.18
1999
 
28,693
0.762
37,673
278.0
2.63
2000
 
30,672
0.781
39,278
289.8
4.26
2001
 
31,617
0.797
39,692
292.9
1.05
2002
 
31,839
0.807
39,452
291.1
-0.60
2003
 
32,717
0.824
39,706
293.0
0.64
2004
 
34,280
0.844
40,595
299.6
2.24
2005
 
35,868
0.869
41,286
304.7
1.70
2006
 
38,120
0.893
42,677
314.9
3.37
2007
 
39,883
0.916
43,534
321.2
2.01
2008
 
41,026
0.943
43,495
321.0
-0.09
2009
 
39,356
0.941
41,841
308.7
-3.80
2010
 
40,690
0.957
42,497
313.6
1.57
2011
 
42,783
0.982
43,580
321.6
2.55
2012
 
44,614
1.000
44,614
329.2
2.37
2013
 
44,894
1.014
44,294
326.9
-0.72
2014
 
47,017
1.029
45,698
337.2
3.17
2015
 
48,891
1.031
47,414
349.9
3.76
2016
 
49,812
1.041
47,828
352.9
0.87
2017
 
51,811
1.061
48,855
360.5
2.15
2018
 
54,098
1.083
49,943
368.5
2.23
2019
 
56,047
1.099
50,988
376.2
2.09
2020
 
59,510
1.112
53,504
394.8
4.93
Source: Calculations by the United States Regional Economic Analysis Project (US-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2021
REAP_PI_SA1400_700_PN
 
   
Copyright © 2021. Pacific Northwest Regional Economic Analysis Project (PNREAP). All Rights Reserved.

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