Texas vs. United States
Comparative Trends Analysis:
Per Capita Personal Income Growth and Change, 1958-2019
Introduction
Texas:
2019 PCI = $52,504
U.S.:
2019 PCI = $56,663
Per Capita Income (PCI) is one of the most widely used indicators for gauging the economic performance and changing fortunes of local economies. It is used as a yardstick to assess the economic well being of a region's residents and the quality of consumer markets. It serves as a barometer for calibrating the economic performance of a region over time and to judge differences in relative economic prosperity between regions. Shifting trends in local per capita income growth have important social and political ramifications and significant implications in formulating local economic development strategies and initiatives.
Data Definition:
Personal income is the income that is received by persons from all sources. It is calculated as the sum of wage and salary disbursements, supplements to wages and salaries, proprietors' income with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments, rental income of persons with capital consumption adjustment, personal dividend income, personal interest income, and personal current tranfer receipts, less contributions for government social insurance. This measure of income is calculated as the personal income of the residents of a given area divided by the resident population of the area. In computing per capita personal income, BEA uses the Census Bureau's annual midyear population estimates.
Personal income is measured as a flow throughout the year, while the measurement of population is at one point in mid-year. Therefore, per capita income is distorted if a significant change in population occurs during the year.
For smaller states in particular, per capita income in any given year may be exceptionally high or low for the short run because of unusual local conditions, such as a bumper crop, a catastrophe, or a major construction project as the building of a dam or nuclear power plant.
Farm incomes are notorious for being especially volatile year-to-year, owing to changing weather, commodity market conditions, and alterations in government programs. Therefore, the per capita income of farm-dependent states may exhibit sharp fluctuations over time.
The presence of large institutional populations--such as residents attending a local college or the residents of a local prison or state mental institution--can significantly lower the per capita income estimates of an area. Such results may not reflect the relative economic well being of the non-institutional population and may mislead if care is not given to their interpretation.
Texas Per Capita Personal Income, 1959-2019
Current vs. Constant Dollars
Texas Per Capita Personal Income, 1959-2019
Current vs. Constant Dollars
Figure 1.
Figure 1 depicts Texas' annual per capita personal income over 1959-2019 in current and constant (2012) dollars. Constant dollar measurements remove the effects of inflation. They allow for comparison of changes in the real purchasing power of Texas over time.
When measured in current dollars, Texas' per capita personal income increased 2,508.7%, from $2,013 in 1959 to $52,504 in 2019. When measured in constant 2012 dollars to adjust for inflation, it advanced 285.6%, from $12,419 in 1959 to $47,882 in 2019.
Real Per Capita Personal Income Indices (1958=100): 1958-2019
Real Per Capita Personal Income Indices (1958=100): 1958-2019
Figure 2.
Figure 2 portrays Texas' real per capita personal income growth in a broader context by offering direct comparisons across time with the United States. The growth indices shown here express each region's real per capita personal income in 1958 as a base figure of 100, and the real per capita personal incomes in later years as a percentage of the 1958 base figure. This method allows for more direct comparison of differences in real per capita personal income growth between regions that may differ vastly in size.
Texas' overall real per capita personal income growth was 295.3% over 1958-2019 outpaced the United States' increase of 282.1%.
Per Capita Personal Income as a Percent of the U.S. Average: 1958-2019
Per Capita Personal Income as a Percent of the U.S. Average: 1958-2019
Figure 3.
Figure 3 depicts the trends for per capita personal income relative to the national average by tracing Texas per capita personal income as a percent of the national average over 1958-2019.
In 1958, Texas' per capita personal income amounted to 89.6% of the national average; in 2019, it approximated 92.7%.
Texas Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1959-2019
Texas Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1959-2019
Figure 4.
Figure 4 highlights the short-run pattern of Texas' real per capita personal income growth by tracking the year-to-year percent change over 1959-2019. The average annual percent change for the entire 61-year period is also traced on this chart to provide a benchmark for gauging periods of relative high--and relative low--growth against the backdrop of the long-term average.
On average, Texas' real per capita personal income grew at an annual rate of 2.31% over 1959-2019. The state recorded its highest growth in 1998 (5.78%) and recorded its lowest growth in 2009 (-6.43%). In 2019, Texas' real per capita personal income grew by 2.57%
Texas Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1959-2019
Texas Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1959-2019
Figure 5.
Over the past six decades some states have experienced extreme swings in growth, and often such swings have tended to coincide with the decades themselves. Figure 5 again shows the annual percent change in Texas' real per capita personal income since 1959, but this time they are overlayed with average growth rates for the decade of the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010-2019.
During the 1960s, Texas' annual real per capita personal income growth rate averaged 3.48%. It averaged 3.29% throughout the 1970s, 1.18% in the 1980s, 2.48% throughout the 1990s, 1.29% in the 2000s, and 2.10% thus far this decade (2010 to 2019).
Real Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Real Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Figure 6.
Figure 6 compares the decade average growth rates for Texas noted in the previous graph with the corresponding decade averages for the nation.
Relative to nationwide real per capita personal income growth trends, Texas fell under the nation during the 1960s (3.48% vs. 3.49%), outgained the nation during the 1970s (3.29% vs. 2.37%), trailed the nation in the 1980s (1.18% vs. 2.20%), topped the nation during the 1990s (2.48% vs. 2.03%), outpaced the nation in the 2000s (1.29% vs. 1.09%), and lagged the nation over 2010-2019 (2.10% vs. 2.16%).
   
 
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change
 
 
 
2.31
3.48
3.29
1.18
2.48
1.29
2.10
2.57
 
2.24
3.49
2.37
2.20
2.03
1.09
2.16
2.49
 
   

Tip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Texas:
Per Capita Personal Income, 1958-2019
 
1958
 
1,934
0.160
12,113
100.0
N
89.55
1959
 
2,013
0.162
12,419
102.5
2.53
89.06
1960
 
2,020
0.165
12,261
101.2
-1.27
87.02
1961
 
2,092
0.166
12,571
103.8
2.53
87.80
1962
 
2,147
0.168
12,749
105.3
1.42
85.94
1963
 
2,219
0.170
13,020
107.5
2.12
85.71
1964
 
2,354
0.173
13,615
112.4
4.57
86.05
1965
 
2,507
0.175
14,296
118.0
5.00
85.92
1966
 
2,713
0.180
15,092
124.6
5.57
86.58
1967
 
2,934
0.184
15,921
131.4
5.49
88.18
1968
 
3,203
0.192
16,724
138.1
5.05
88.56
1969
 
3,493
0.200
17,450
144.1
4.34
88.85
1970
 
3,782
0.210
18,051
149.0
3.45
90.09
1971
 
4,007
0.218
18,345
151.5
1.63
89.62
1972
 
4,352
0.226
19,268
159.1
5.03
89.60
1973
 
4,835
0.238
20,314
167.7
5.43
90.16
1974
 
5,342
0.263
20,326
167.8
0.06
91.54
1975
 
5,947
0.285
20,890
172.5
2.77
94.05
1976
 
6,528
0.300
21,736
179.4
4.05
94.95
1977
 
7,124
0.320
22,272
183.9
2.47
94.79
1978
 
8,023
0.342
23,452
193.6
5.30
96.02
1979
 
8,978
0.373
24,101
199.0
2.77
97.24
1980
 
9,983
0.413
24,195
199.7
0.39
98.07
1981
 
11,413
0.450
25,385
209.6
4.92
101.00
1982
 
12,102
0.475
25,502
210.5
0.46
100.86
1983
 
12,575
0.495
25,418
209.8
-0.33
99.04
1984
 
13,546
0.513
26,384
217.8
3.80
97.41
1985
 
14,353
0.531
27,013
223.0
2.38
97.28
1986
 
14,427
0.543
26,575
219.4
-1.62
93.14
1987
 
14,653
0.560
26,183
216.2
-1.47
89.96
1988
 
15,494
0.582
26,645
220.0
1.76
88.76
1989
 
16,417
0.607
27,051
223.3
1.52
87.90
1990
 
17,455
0.634
27,551
227.5
1.85
88.96
1991
 
17,897
0.655
27,335
225.7
-0.79
89.35
1992
 
18,956
0.672
28,200
232.8
3.17
89.88
1993
 
19,624
0.689
28,485
235.2
1.01
90.30
1994
 
20,287
0.703
28,846
238.1
1.27
89.87
1995
 
21,246
0.718
29,587
244.3
2.57
90.00
1996
 
22,397
0.733
30,536
252.1
3.21
90.42
1997
 
23,919
0.746
32,054
264.6
4.97
92.02
1998
 
25,502
0.752
33,905
279.9
5.78
92.55
1999
 
26,337
0.763
34,500
284.8
1.75
91.85
2000
 
28,135
0.782
35,962
296.9
4.24
91.77
2001
 
29,339
0.797
36,794
303.8
2.31
92.88
2002
 
29,185
0.808
36,125
298.2
-1.82
91.69
2003
 
29,772
0.824
36,150
298.4
0.07
91.10
2004
 
30,688
0.844
36,355
300.1
0.57
89.60
2005
 
32,745
0.868
37,719
311.4
3.75
91.34
2006
 
35,144
0.892
39,411
325.4
4.49
92.21
2007
 
36,646
0.914
40,078
330.9
1.69
91.97
2008
 
39,271
0.942
41,698
344.3
4.04
96.01
2009
 
36,711
0.941
39,015
322.1
-6.43
93.45
2010
 
38,276
0.957
39,993
330.2
2.51
94.40
2011
 
41,245
0.981
42,031
347.0
5.09
96.51
2012
 
43,406
1.000
43,406
358.3
3.27
97.31
2013
 
43,797
1.013
43,215
356.8
-0.44
97.63
2014
 
46,311
1.028
45,036
371.8
4.21
98.38
2015
 
46,605
1.030
45,228
373.4
0.43
95.12
2016
 
45,654
1.041
43,859
362.1
-3.03
91.51
2017
 
47,975
1.059
45,290
373.9
3.26
92.42
2018
 
50,483
1.081
46,682
385.4
3.07
92.59
2019
 
52,504
1.097
47,882
395.3
2.57
92.66
Source: Calculations by the United States Regional Economic Analysis Project (US-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
March 2020
REAP_PI_SA1400_700_PN
 
   

Tip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
United States:
Per Capita Personal Income, 1958-2019
 
1958
 
2,160
0.160
13,526
100.0
N
1959
 
2,260
0.162
13,945
103.1
3.10
1960
 
2,321
0.165
14,089
104.2
1.04
1961
 
2,383
0.166
14,318
105.9
1.62
1962
 
2,498
0.168
14,835
109.7
3.61
1963
 
2,589
0.170
15,191
112.3
2.40
1964
 
2,735
0.173
15,822
117.0
4.15
1965
 
2,918
0.175
16,638
123.0
5.16
1966
 
3,134
0.180
17,432
128.9
4.77
1967
 
3,328
0.184
18,056
133.5
3.58
1968
 
3,617
0.192
18,885
139.6
4.59
1969
 
3,931
0.200
19,638
145.2
3.99
1970
 
4,198
0.210
20,037
148.1
2.03
1971
 
4,471
0.218
20,469
151.3
2.16
1972
 
4,857
0.226
21,504
159.0
5.05
1973
 
5,363
0.238
22,532
166.6
4.78
1974
 
5,836
0.263
22,205
164.2
-1.45
1975
 
6,324
0.285
22,212
164.2
0.03
1976
 
6,875
0.300
22,893
169.3
3.06
1977
 
7,516
0.320
23,496
173.7
2.64
1978
 
8,356
0.342
24,425
180.6
3.95
1979
 
9,232
0.373
24,784
183.2
1.47
1980
 
10,180
0.413
24,672
182.4
-0.45
1981
 
11,300
0.450
25,134
185.8
1.87
1982
 
11,999
0.475
25,285
186.9
0.60
1983
 
12,698
0.495
25,666
189.8
1.51
1984
 
13,906
0.513
27,085
200.3
5.53
1985
 
14,755
0.531
27,769
205.3
2.52
1986
 
15,490
0.543
28,532
210.9
2.75
1987
 
16,289
0.560
29,106
215.2
2.01
1988
 
17,455
0.582
30,017
221.9
3.13
1989
 
18,676
0.607
30,773
227.5
2.52
1990
 
19,621
0.634
30,970
229.0
0.64
1991
 
20,030
0.655
30,593
226.2
-1.22
1992
 
21,090
0.672
31,376
232.0
2.56
1993
 
21,733
0.689
31,546
233.2
0.54
1994
 
22,575
0.703
32,099
237.3
1.75
1995
 
23,607
0.718
32,874
243.1
2.42
1996
 
24,771
0.733
33,773
249.7
2.73
1997
 
25,993
0.746
34,833
257.5
3.14
1998
 
27,557
0.752
36,637
270.9
5.18
1999
 
28,675
0.763
37,564
277.7
2.53
2000
 
30,657
0.782
39,186
289.7
4.32
2001
 
31,589
0.797
39,616
292.9
1.10
2002
 
31,832
0.808
39,401
291.3
-0.54
2003
 
32,681
0.824
39,681
293.4
0.71
2004
 
34,251
0.844
40,576
300.0
2.26
2005
 
35,849
0.868
41,295
305.3
1.77
2006
 
38,114
0.892
42,742
316.0
3.50
2007
 
39,844
0.914
43,575
322.2
1.95
2008
 
40,904
0.942
43,431
321.1
-0.33
2009
 
39,284
0.941
41,750
308.7
-3.87
2010
 
40,547
0.957
42,366
313.2
1.48
2011
 
42,739
0.981
43,553
322.0
2.80
2012
 
44,605
1.000
44,605
329.8
2.42
2013
 
44,860
1.013
44,264
327.3
-0.76
2014
 
47,071
1.028
45,775
338.4
3.41
2015
 
48,994
1.030
47,546
351.5
3.87
2016
 
49,890
1.041
47,929
354.4
0.81
2017
 
51,910
1.059
49,005
362.3
2.24
2018
 
54,526
1.081
50,420
372.8
2.89
2019
 
56,663
1.097
51,674
382.1
2.49
Source: Calculations by the United States Regional Economic Analysis Project (US-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
March 2020
REAP_PI_SA1400_700_PN
 
   
Copyright © 2020. Pacific Northwest Regional Economic Analysis Project (PNREAP). All Rights Reserved.

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